Friday, October 5, 2007

Newton Stone, Brahmi Script And Swastika

Sir Isaac Newton is well known for his interests and contributions to Physics and Mathematics, specially Gravity and Calculus, but it is not well known that he was also a philosopher who had keen interest in History and Religion. He was member of the Knights Templar group as well as the Free Masons society. This was similar to many other scientists who were after chasing the nature of the truth and did not confine themselves to only one field and not biased and closed their doors and windows of their intellectual dwelling. Pythagoras stands out as one who was very much connected with the Vedic Philosphy, and is believed to have visited East, including Egypt, Babylonia and India, like other Greek Philosophers, Aristotle, Socrates and Plato. They all were great Philosophers of their time, but at the same time in some various combinations, Spiritualists, Mathematicians, Logicians, Scientists and Astronomers. The Pythagoras theorem is mentioned in Veda Angas and it is believed that Pythagoras got this from Indians, as mentioned in many history books.

What is surprising to me is that why any Indian or any school history student has not heard of this Newton Stone before? So why no one has mentioned this uncanny resemblance of Hindu's and Indian influence all over the globe? It is well documented that the ancient Egyptians and Indians were very akin. Why there river is called Nile, which the Sanskrit word for Blue? It is recorded by Britishers that when they wanted to navigate Nile to its source, only Hindu Brahmins knew about its exact location. (source Anacalypsis). Many of religious beliefs of Egyptians were similar to Hindoos. Like Phallic/Lingam/Obleisk, Snake and Solar worship. Isis and Horus are nothing but corruption of Ishish and Suresh as mentioned in the postings Isis-Jesus-Isha-Isha-masi and On Horus, Chorus, Korus and Suresh.

Why Ramyses's (read Rama-ishish) family married Hittites daughters, who were worshipping Vedic Gods, had Hindu names and Sanskrit like religion. Modern academicians have only lately come to accept this resemblance as put it as as a PIE (Proto Indo European) Civilization, PIE Language, and PIE Religion. Please see following links, Ramesses_II, Hittites, and Indo-Aryan_superstrate_in_Mitanni. Why does Cleopatra sends her son to India when she is defeated along with Mark Anthony by Octavius? See what Pharos have their on their Heads and what Shiva has on its head. See how many Gods they have with animal heads and how many Gods Hindus have with animal heads.

Take the characters from the script and compare with the Brahmi Related Scripts. Any layman would realize that the script is in the same family as of Brahmi and Phoenician. Please see my other postings Common Brahmi And Phoenician Script and Phoenicians And Panis .

What makes it hard is that without knowing which exact language it belongs to, as there are many dialects using the variants of the same script, like it is today with Devanagri, and the fact that the same letters have many variations, and then these letters get modified with "maatras" or vowel measures, which only extends the letters in top and bottom, right and left wise, only making it difficult to read and parse. My children have been reading Hindi and Sanskrit for last 10 years now, but this time I got a different font from the WikiSource and they had a hard time reading the text.

So I have refrained myself in translating the text myself though I was tempted and tried for a short while. I went crazy trying to parse, and also not knowing to read from left to right, bottom to top, or to invert the picture and read it. See my posting Hammu Rabi which has an example of this problem leading to mistakes. But I have included a translation of the transcript and presence of Budhhist characters and Hindo Swastika symbols in coins found in the Nordic and Denmark regions.

Newton Stone.

Different variations of Brahmi Scripts

One of Newton Stone Scripts.

Coins found in Denmark and Nordic Countries with Swastika and Brahami Scripts.

Translation Tranlation of the Script (am not sure how correct it is).

Translation of the Script (am not sure how correct it is).

Translation of the Script (am not sure how correct it is).

The Rev. Dr. Lindsay Alexander stated that he had for long taken an interest in this curious inscription, and had compared it with the Phoenician and other alphabets, but without being able to find anything beyond resemblances. More recently he had been struck with the similarity of character between the letters on the Newton Stone, and those of the Sinaitic Inscriptions, and of the Caves at Ellora. Ref. 1

... traces the existence of the ancient race from India to Europe, but will go on to a reference to the sculptured or inscribed stone, called the " Newton Stone", found in Aberdeenshire, ...

... After giving a long account of the similarity of the letters which are found on the stone to many which are found in ancient caves in India...

There is a great number of pillar stones in Scotland; many are sculptured after a rude fashion, and are almost precisely similar to those existent in India and Ceylon. Elephants are depicted upon some, the legs terminating in scrolls, just in the same fashion as they are depicted in the East. It is singular to see copies of elephants so far from their ordinary habitat; still more curious is it to find that the artist is as conventional in Scotland as in Hindostan... Ref. 2

Ashoka's Edict

Rock Carving From Kanheri Caves in Jogeshwari Bombay.

A Fragment from Ashoka's Pillar

Stone Circles in Crete - Demeter

Myths of Crete and Pre-Hellenic Europe: Introduction

Demeter of the Grecian Phigalia--the Black Ceres--lived in a cave, which is still regarded as sacred. This deity, who is believed to be a form of the Cretan Great Mother, was also associated with stone circles. Pausanias, writing of the town of Hermione in the Peloponnese, says that near it "there is a circle of huge unhewn stones, and inside this circle they perform the sacred rites of Demeter". 1

Demeter is basically Female or Mother Worship Principle, which in India goes by the name of Durga, Mata, Shakti, Kali, Latha, Bhavani, and so on. In fact people who go to the Vaishno Devi Mandir in India still say "Je Mata De", and please note "Mata De" or "De Mata", which is same as "De Meter". "Matri" is the general noun root, and the singular is "Mata".

This just confirms the same cultural influence from Scotland, Ireland, England and Wales to Crete, Greece, Italy and Antolia.

This backs up the article on Stonehenge also being the principle of Mother/Female and Father/Male Principle, besides other things. It also backs up the find of Aum in the post Aum In Crete And America.

The number 432000 known to Hindus, Persians and Babylonians and encoded in the mythological stories of Italians and Nordic people, is also shown to be encoded in the post on Stonehenge in the series of post covered in the blog. The well known factors of the number 432000 are part of the Stone Circles that are encoded.

Monday, August 27, 2007

Stone Circles Of The World - Part 3

This is the final part on the Stonehenge, where I would conclude my finding (which I did over 2 weeks of my PTO) that Stonehenge was a giant calendering system, used to track, record and predict days, weeks, months, years, eclipses, solstices and equinoxes, and announce worship and celebrations days on special events.

Stonehenge was many things to many people and most of it has been already talked by others. It was a mausoleum with buried remains or urn containing the cremated ashes of their spiritual or patriarchal leaders. It was also a temple of worship of the Male and Female Principle as Shiv-Lingam and Yoni is to Hindus today. This has been discussed in previous posting and also suggested by others. The previous posting had a drawing which clearly shows the Lingam and Yoni aspect. (In other posting, I would show presence of Shiva in England and Greece). To the learned priest class, it was an observatory and a calender to observe, record and predict solar and lunar events, besides it being a place of worship and celebration. To many people of practical purpose, it was a place of social gathering and a place to do business. We would focus on Stonehenge being a calendering system.

Phase 1 - Showing 56 Holes For Rotating Wooden Posts

56 holes for rotating the wooden posts in above picture shows that the ancients were tracking the 28 day lunar month. It is not clear why they would not cover the whole circle with 28 stones. Perhaps they were tracking the duration between odd full moons or even full moons for better accuracy, like one measures the wave length in a sine wave. Or they were trying to fit 360 solar days in a year with 6.5 turns instead of 13 turns for some reason - or 720 solar days with 13 turns of a 56 stone circle! This was their first attempt to make the calender and may have not been confident in tracking 28 days cycle only.

Phase 2 Showing Holes in North East and South East

Phase 2, the holes in center were perhaps to track the years but we would not be sure. And the holes in the north-east side were perhaps to track the Solar Solstices and the holes in the South East perhaps to track Solar Equinoxes. Their is some evidence of the Stonehenge tracking the same event in parallel to avoid mistakes arising because of some natural catastrophe or man made pranks by vandals.

Phase 3 - 1 - Stone Henge

Phase 3-2. Shows 30 Vertical Stones and 30 Horizontal Stones in the Sarsen Circle

Perhaps all this time, the focus was on the size of the stones and how these stones were placed and how they were carried from far off places, that people did not see the connection between different circles.

Phase 3-3 - Stonehenge

Phase 3-4 Stonehenge

20 Stones, and as later we would see, they are placed in 19 + 1 pattern on each side of the semicircle, showing that 20 x 360 = 7200 Solar Days. 600 Years were being tracked, as 31 x 19 + 11 = 600. And 19 was being used to track the Metonic Cycle to predict the Lunar Eclipse. Later it would be shown that a cycle of 31, 30, 28, 24, 11, and 10 could be tracked, like a dial of a watch, besides the cycles of 1, 2, 19, and 20. All they had to do was to place different coded stones and rotate them.

Recall from previous postings that 600 Neros Cycle was being used and later they found that every 72 years the Sun would rise 1 degree off in Summer Solstice, accounting for the wobble of the earth's axis, with the cycle of 25920 years! More on this later.

This knowledge, though shown to be known to all Proto Indo Europeans all over the world in forms of stories in their mythology, was lost by the ancients except for Hindus till date, perhaps showing the most "orthodox" and "staunch" believers of the religion from the ancient times, which is kind of backed by the observation that Hinduism is the last vestige of the Prototype Indo European Religion. Babylonians and Persians knew this, and Egyptians and Greeks had copied this concept, but without keeping up with the Hindus, who kept refining this. Before they settled at 72 years to 1 degree relationship, they would go as far as 100 years and as low as 60 years to 1 degree relationship. I am thinking just a brief on the whole article, as I have realized now that people may not have time to read and patience to digest all the boring details.

Inner Circle - Stonehenge

The above picture shows that the X and Z holes had 30 stones and 30/28 stones respectively. In another book they have talked about one of the circles having 31 stones. The third inner circle showing 30 stones and the innermost circle having 43 or 44 stones. The multiple 30 stones perhaps indicates tracking solar days in multiple, and/or tracking other larger numbers with factors of 30. If we account for 28 stones in one of the circle, it would be tracking lunar days and month, which makes sense, if one has to account for 2 circles for lunar months (including the outer circle that had 56 stones) and 2 circles for solar months. We are still left with inner most circle of 30 stones and 43/44 stones. Recall we had 20 stones covered in horse show ring, which makes 20 x 30 = 600. It is not clear why we have 43 or 44 stones or if that numbering is correct. There is a wobble of another kind, called "Chandler Wobble", which was discovered recently, and it has a period of 433 days. Since 10 and 5 were encoded in the horse-shoe circle, is it possible to code this as 10 x 43 + 3 ? Interesting, we have shown 4320 was an interesting number to the ancients. So was 43 and 20 being encoded somehow? Also, 19 x 31 + 11 = 600, so 4 x (19 x 31 + 11) = 4 x 19 x 31 + 44 = 2400, which was another cycle of importance, and we shall see that 24 was also encoded in another circle!

Inner Circle - Stone henge with North-West and South-East Semi/Full Circles (double-click to magnify)

The South East Circles shows 28 stones in Middle Circle , 13 stones in Inner Circle, and 24 stones in Outer circle. 28 x 13 = 364, which is what the later years started looking like, and 24 x 30 = 720. This shows later efforts to reconcile the lunar calender with the solar calender and also account for increase in duration in Solar Years from 360 to 364, 365 and 366 days. Please note, that some "stones" have been counted by extrapolating equidistant points or counting stones in one 1/3 sector. Needless to say, 7200 = 24 x 30 x 10, which was show before as 360 x 20.

The North West Semicircles shows Outer most semicircles with 31/30 and 30 stones, and inner most semicircle with 24 and 12 stones. The use of 24 perhaps backs the observation that the duration between odd or even years was also being tracked for accuracy reasons.

The fact these circles and semi-circles are smaller, showing they were installed later, and somehow being squeezed into a tight space, shows an adapting architecture in Stonehenge as the ancients' knowledge on different astronomical cycles increased and as they shifted from a Lunar Calender to a Solar Calendar.

The NW alley circles, marked 5, has 36 stones each. Knowing that they had stone circles to count factors of 20, 10, 2, it is easy to visualize, they counting cycles 720, 360 and 72! 25920 cycle comes to 36 x 36 x 2 x 10. What this means is that could project cycles of 25920 precession, based on observation of shifting zodiacs associated with the solstices, which they settled down to 1 degree for every 72 years!

The above two pictures, confirm the star was the symbol of Male and Female Principle, which was worshiped by Hindus and Stonehenge alike. The triangle pointing upwards was the Male Principle and the triangle pointing downwards was the Female Principle. Also, most of the stone circles are marked with 2 stones or alleys to mark the passage between the womb, denoted by the circle, and the outer world, to worship the Female Principle.

The picture confirm that that the inner horse-shoe had 19 stones, and the outer horse ring had 10 stones, and the next inner circle had 40 stones, but it pattern of 19 + 1 + 1 + 19. The outer inner circle is confirmed to have 30 stones.

Stonecircles with the Male Principle and the Female Principle Worship found in Afganistan area.

So even, we do not have a complete accurate knowledge of stones in the all circles, in Stonehenge as well in other stone circles from Europe and India, some of the numbers which are needed in the astrology and astronomical observations, do constantly resurface everywhere. And knowing that we inherited these magic numbers from our distant ancients, and did not invent them, it is quite likely that the ancients were lot smarter than we have acknowledged, and their knowledge of mathematics and astronomy was far ahead than it has been acknowledged.

I will conclude the article by borrowing the article from Godfrey Higgins's Anacalypsis, page 313.

Here I think the temenos was the Gilgal of Dr. Clarke. See CELTIC DRUDS, passim. And from this we may not unreasonably suspect that the re/xei/os meant a stone circle : or, at all events, that a stone circle was a Te/ievos.

In my Celtic Druids I have given an example of two Cromlehs in India, plates 39 and 40, and I have given a drawing of another in figure 18 of this work. I have since found that stone circles, similar to our Stonehenge, Abury, &c., are very common in the northern parts of India. The natives can give no account of them.

These circles appear to be a remnant of antiquity of a similar species to those of the Puniha-Pandawars, a great number of which are to be seen scattered on the adjacent heights about a mile west of a place called Durnacotta. The stones composing these circles are of a hard blackish granite, very irregular in shape, measuring in general about three feet in height, and of the same dimension in thickness. The country people seem ignorant on the subject of these antiquities, and can give no information for what purposes they were designed. It is reported that circles of a similar description are very numerous among the skirts of the hills of Wudlamaun and others in that neighbourhood, that on some of these being opened by the late Rajah, Vassareddy, they were found to contain human bones of a large size, and that in some there were earthen pots curiously placed together containing ashes or charcoal. Similar to the above at Amravutty, on the river Christna or Kistna, is to be seen a mound called Depaldenna.(Note 1)

Drawings of great numbers of these circles may be seen in Mackenzie's manuscripts above-mentioned. I shall give a drawing of only one of them, because, although there is no reason to doubt the general accuracy of the accounts, yet no attempt has been made to ascertain of what numbers of stones these circles originally consisted, which was the only thing that could render them really useful; but which, as was originally the case in England, was thought to be of no consequence. It is, however, remarkable that, in the circle which I have given, fig. u, as the reader will find on counting them (allowance being made for one evidently broken), 19 stones, the number of the Metonic cycle, are found.

Note 1: See Col.Mackenzie's manuscripts, India Antiqua Illustrata, in the musuem in India-House, No 9, 1816-1817, and my plates Fig. 11.

Friday, August 24, 2007

Stone Circles Of The World - Part 2

If the early man has to count and track any passing time events like days, weeks, months and years, he has to first observe the natural events. The obvious natural events are the cycle of sun-rises and sun-sets, marking days and nights, the cycle of changing seasons, repeating season marking an of a year, the cycle of waxing and waning of moon, marking a lunar month, and the cycles of Spring Solstices, Summer Equinoxes, Autumn Equinoxes, and Winter Solstices, each repeating to mark a year completion of preceding like wise event, and associating them with the change of seasons.

It would not take long for him to see the co-relations between some of these events, like between days and months, between lunar months and seasons, between year and seasons, and between seasons and sun rises and sets in spring and autumn equinoxes, and, in summer and winter solstices.

He would be gazing stars and imagine some cluster of stars based on his surrounding animals and give them some zodiac names, e.g. Leo, Taurus, etc. He would align the sun rises and sun sets, and also the moon rises and moon sets, to these imaginary cluster of stars, and see a co-relation repeating over time. So he would expect, to his yet incomplete self tutored mind, the sun rises in all Summer Solstices in the constellation of Taurus in May,and so on. To count these passing events, he would need to mark their passages and track them and project the next events that would follow. This knowledge would be valued to the early men who lived under constant fear of the elements of nature and yet had not mastered it to the extent the modern man has.

What else would be so convenient than to pick the stones and use them as markers for the passing events, by having a "rotating" marker stone be moved around to different "stationary" events stones marking a particular event? He would start with a simple counting and marking mechanism, and as he would spend time doing this exercise, he would soon master the basic math, where a larger number X would be a repetition of some smaller number Y for some number Z times. He would use this knowledge of factorisation to conserve his stone to mark and track multiple time events, and their co relation, without wasting many stones in a complicated machine! The necessity is the mother of invention, and like a modern clock, he would device different circles with different number of stones, representing the same fundamental principle, except that the "motor" was him, the hand were the moving "marker" stones and the numbers were stationery "event" stones! He would show the use of underlying principle of overflow of a "digit", and skipping and not bothering with the left side "digit" till it has overflowed for the first time, as if counting from zero!

Being a man of practical wisdom, he would use the same place for burial and cremation, perhaps of some famous person, like family patriarch and community leader, and also for recording the time events he was observing. And the early man architect would use the same stones in his architecture to erect the temples for worship of his God, as per his understanding! The understanding was the underlying Male and Female principle of regeneration he would see in Sun and Earth respectively. Thus these stone rings became a place of marking nature's events, place of worship, a place of cremation/burial, commemoration of passing of some important personage, and also a social place of meeting and doing transactions! We slowly and surely pace ourselves through these progressions before we finally conclude our grand finally with posting on Stonehenge!

The picture above shows 6 Stones and 1 stone at the center. One could use this to count the 6 seasons which many ancients like Hindoos had, e.g., Vasant (Spring), Grishm (Summer), Varsha (Monsoon), Sharad (Autumn), Hemant (Mild Winter) and Shishu (Intense Winter) Ritus (Seasons). Being a modern man, who is used to computers, satellites, atomic clocks, telescopes, we would find this observation rather silly. But we must place ourselves in the shoes of the primitive man, perhaps going back as far 6000 BC to 3000 BC, which some of the stones in Stonehenge have been dated to.

The picture above shows 7 stones, with 2 missing but with marked places, and 2 to mark the "entrance" and 1 to mark the "alignment", adding them to 12 stones. Please note the number 7 and 12 before we jump to any conclusion. He could cycle the 7 stones for days in a week, perhaps keeping the previous week placed marker stone and adding a new one when passing the same day of the week! And he would have a different color stone for the month, and after 28 days, and 2 days, which he could use the 2 "entrance stones", he would move to the next "month" stone. Like modern engineers, he would revise his techniques after learning from his past mistakes and newer ideas to solve the discovered problems!

The above Stone Ring in Deccan, Southern India, has 28 stones, including the 2 "entrance" stones. Please note this is the number of days in a lunar month, when it is considered that the solar year was 360 days. Please read the Background in Astrology and Religion. All "dotted" stones are easy to identify.

The above "below" Stone Ring in India, has 28 stones, including the 2 "entrance stones". Also, the above "above" Stone Ring in Yorkshire, if some imagination is used to fill up the gaps with missing stones, and count the stones were the "edges" are visible, and not counting the "giant center" stone but imagining 2 stones behind, one can come to 28 stones, or a number close to it.

The plan can only be used to count the stones in the inner circle. There is one stone in the center and there are 12 stone making the inner circle. The center stone is the symbol of the Sun or Male Principle and the Circle is the symbol of the Earth or Mother Principle.

The stone circle in Amravati, in India, has around 28, 30 or 31 stones, if one counts all "demarcations" making 1 stone, filling in gaps and following the equidistant rule but allowing the builder a chance to fit big or small stones, but compensating for the increase or decrease in dimension by fitting smaller or bigger stone later on.

Stone ring in "Figure 14", has 21 rings in outer circle and 7 stones in inner circle, adding up to 28 stones, and perhaps the "moving" marker stone moves to the inner circle in the last week of the lunar month! Stone ring in "Figure 13" has approx 28 to 30 stones, if one accounts for smaller stones splitting but trying to keep the imaginary size in mind, yet accounting for some reasonable margin for the builder to adjust the sizes, but on average keeping them same. In "Figure 12" we have 12 Big Stones, and 2 Small Entrance Stones, not counting much smaller and incomparable stones used as filler for the gaps, one can imagine the building either keeping the small stone as a "separating stone" for excluding counting or counting as 13 stone when fitting lunar months into solar years!

In Fig 79, one accounts for last two stones on each side in the rear as making the edges, and counting them as a rectangle of stones made of 8 x 6, we come to 28 stones!

The inner circle has 19 to 20 stones, if one accounts for the 3 small stones with clear marking of edges like big stones. 19 is the Metonic Cycle and 20 is a factor of 60 and 360. If one counts the middle circle, one comes to 60 stones, if we just count the right side semi circle having 30 stones and double it. The outer most stone is difficult to count and strangely, if one just counts the stone marked in unequal distances, with missing gaps, there are 12 of them, which is a strange coincidence! It is difficult to extrapolate the "missing locations" because the gaps are many, but if one tries to put imaginary stones in equidistant, in line with the closest distance already demonstrated with other stones present, one comes to 24 stones! And then there are 4 stones in the center for the cardinal signs and 1 central stone. Strangely, if one moves the "marker" stone around 60 stones in the middle circle, and then moves the second "marker" stone from "imaginary 0" to 1, and then repeats the process for second marker at 2, 3, 4, for "from 1 to 2", "from 2 to 3", "from 3 to 4" and "from 5 to 6" transitions, and at central marked place one comes to 6 cycles of 60 counts, which is 360! The 5 are "overflow" stones for 60 turns of 5 overflows and for without overflow we have a one 60 turn! It is like counting from 0, or before the overflow event happens, we do not write the left most digit, so saving an instance of tracking or writing a "o" digit on left!

This may just look like a surprising coincidence, repeating at many sites, or a consistent oversight of many artists, or my wild imagination in counting them, is any one's guess, but most probably, knowing that the discovery must have been made by our early ancestors, and the evidence of stone circles being aligned with sun rising and sun setting events at solar solstices and equinoxes, it is reasonable to assume that these stone circles were also man's first attempt to clock the days, weeks, months and years and also predict the lunar or solar eclipses!

Now in next posting, we conclude if the same principle repeats in Stonehenge.

Hindus and Celts Commonality

Adapted from The Early Races of Scotland and Their Monuments By Forbes Leslie, page 451 onwards.


Common Element in Languages of Countries extending from the Himalayas to the Hebrides, and a remarkable similarity in Primitive Monuments over the same Extent—Primitive Monuments of India existed prior to the Rock-cut Temples—Circular Stone Fanes still commonly erected in India—Sacrifice of Goats and Cocks—The Number of Stones in the Circle had reference to the Numbers of those who were to partake of the Sacrifice— Stones similarly placed at Superstitions Ceremonies in Scotland— Bali and Baal—List of Monuments common to India and the Celtic Countries of Western Europe—Similar Monuments in Persia and Media; in Syria, Palestine, Phoenicia, Circassia, Troy, Malta, Goza, Tunis, Algeria and the North Coast of Africa, Italy, Spain, Lusitania, Gaul, Armoriea, the Channel Islands, Great Britain, and Ireland.

IT is only in very recent times that philologists have fully compared and finally traced striking relations and common elements in the language of nations extending from the remote Hebrides to the Himalaya mountains, and have proved the intimate connection of the Celtic with the Sanscrit. (Note 1) Evidence confirmatory of the latter fact could, if it were necessary, be developed to a much greater extent; if not (continued)

Note 1 particularly refer to the facts Notes, etc., of Professor Wilson; to made known by Bopp's Comparative Pritchard's Celtic Nations, by Latham ; Grammar, translated and edited by and to Latham Y. Descriptive Ethno- Professor Eastwick, and with theology.


in the structure of the languages, certainly in the identity of words that are expressive of the same meaning in Sanscrit and Celtic dialects. From the comparative rudeness of the Celtic it may be inferred that, if derived from a common origin with the Sanscrit, it must have separated from the parent stock at a very remote period, long prior to the age of the earliest Vedic hymns—viz. the Rigveda—vibich, there is reason to believe, cannot have existed less, but portions of which were promulgated more than three thousand years ago.

The object of the present and immediately succeeding chapters is to show that many of the primitive monuments, customs, superstitions, rites, sacrifices, and objects of worship of the races inhabiting the peninsula of India were similar to those of the Celtic tribes in France and Britain. In a less degree, perhaps because not so well known, analogous monuments and customs will be noticed as existing in intermediate countries.

The departure of the Celtic race from the land of their ancestors and the East, if they did so depart, and from where- ever it may have been that they proceeded, must have occurred at a very early and pre-historic period, when arts and civilisation were but faintly developed, and architecture was not only unknown in the region of their exodus, but also in the nations and countries through which they passed or on which they intruded ; for notwithstanding the cold and moist climate of North Britain and the exposed peninsulas of Armorica, the dwellings of the Celts were not formed of durable materials. Yet in the Cyclopean monuments of these countries (continued)

see proofs that the Celtic people could transport and raise masses of stone which in size were only surpassed by those in the ancient monuments of Egypt.

The disconnected links of a chain of Cyclopean monuments nearly similar in structure may be traced from Central and Western Asia, perhaps even from more remote countries, along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, particularly on the north coast of Africa ; from thence by Spain and Gaul to the extremities of the British Isles.

The notices of such monuments were collected before I became aware of Dr. Meyer's opinion regarding the routes by which the Celtic nations passed into Europe ; and the existence of these remains in the line mentioned certainly appears to be in some degree corroborative of his views,1 in so far as regards the principal and earliest migration and route pursued by the Celts in their progress to the extreme west of the then known world.

Dr. Meyer thinks that the Celtic nation passed from Asia to Europe by two principal routes, which it resumed at different epochs, and thus formed two great streams of migration, flowing as it were periodically.2 The one, in a south-western direction, proceeding through Syria and Egypt, thence along the northern coast of Africa, reached Europe at the Pillars of Hercules, and passing on through Spain to Gaul, then divided (continued)

Note 1. Other circumstances favouring the euce to the earliest recorded legend of opinion of Dr. lleyer are mentioned the monument at Stonehenge. in treating of the Lia-Fail, or " Stone

Note 2. Dr. Charles Meyer, in the Report of Destiny," now in the coronation- of the British Association for the Ad- i hair at Westminster ; and in refer- oancement of Science, 1847, p. 303.


itself into three branches—the northern of which terminated in Grunt Britain and Ireland, the southern in Italy, and the eastern, running along the Alps and the Danube, terminated near the Black Sea. The other great stream of Celtic migration, proceeding in a more direct line, reached Europe at its eastern limit, and passing through European Scythia, and thence partly through Scandinavia, partly along the Baltic, through Prussia, and through Northern Germany, reached Britain across the German Ocean. Of these two streams of migration, the former (viz. by the north coast of Africa), although the less direct, seems to be the more ancient, and to have reached the north-west of Europe several centuries before the other.

The following are a few details regarding the Cyclopean monuments of India, which are similar to those of the Celtic countries of Western Europe ; including notices of monuments of like construction in intermediate countries, particularly such as are in the line of migration indicated by Dr. Meyer as that by which the earliest Celtic emigrants reached Gaul and Britain.

The identity or very strong resemblance of ancient monuments, superstitions, and customs existing in countries geographically remote and historically unconnected, cannot be solely attributed to certain animal instincts implanted in mankind. In cases where the resemblance is undoubted and the peculiarities great, such coincidences may with more probability be referred to former communication between the nations in which they appear, although intercourse between (continued)


them, may be unknown to or unnoticed by history. By some writers the similar effects on isolated human communities by natural impulses said to be developed in certain phases of civilisation in the most distant countries and different climates have surely been overrated, and such coincidences may with probability be limited to exertions of intellect that but little surpass the instinct displayed not only by the higher order of unreasoning animals but even by members of the insect creation.

Architectural uniformity, although instinctive in the lower members of the animated creation, is certainly not an attribute of mankind. In the simple huts formed of stakes and rushes or of pickets and palm-leaves, in the underground houses the formation of which is attributed to pigmies, and in excavated cathedrals and Cyclopean structures, of which genii and giants get credit both for the design and execution, no two edifices are alike. This diversity of form in temples, dwellings, and monuments is common to all races and to all ages ; for as in ancient so also in modern times, and in the most civilised communities, as great a variety is observable in the fashion of the dwellings as in the features of their occupants. From the frail huts constructed by gipsies on a common to the palaces built for kings in the city, all are dissimilar, unless in some few situations where arbitrary power has enforced, in external appearance, an unnatural uniformity •which is dull and displeasing to the eye even in street architecture.

Columnar megalithic fanes, dolmens, kistvaens, and several (continued)


varieties of Cyclopean monuments found in Celtic and other countries have their peculiarities, and are not simple suggestions such as might be supposed to arise in the untutored minds of alien races. The square or the triangle are as likely as the circle or ellipse to present themselves as satisfactory forms in which to arrange the columnar masses meant to designate a sacred enclosure; and the dolmens are neither peculiarly simple in design nor easy of execution when we consider the great masses of rock of which they are frequently composed.

It will not be disputed that the primitive Cyclopean monuments of the Dekhan of India were erected prior to the arrival of the present dominant race—the Hindus—who intruded themselves and introduced the Sanscrit language. The onward progress of the Hindus to general dominion in the Indian peninsula has, however, been so gradual and insidious that it is impossible to fix with any approach to accuracy when these intruders overcame the former possessors of the elevated table-land in which these monuments are most abundant. It may even be doubted, and on good grounds has been disputed, whether the immediate predecessors of the Hindus—the race that speak the most cultivated languages of Southern India, as the Telinga, Tamul, Cauaresse, etc. —were the architects of the Cyclopean fanes and the occupants of the sepulchral tumuli of the Dekhan. They certainly do not appear to have been the aborigines, but to have supplanted an earlier people, as they were themselves overcome by the later migration of the Hindus from beyond the Yindhyan range of hills.

Wednesday, August 22, 2007

Stone Circles of The World - Part 1

We have talked about the Male and Female Principle Worship in all nations and civilizations, of which for now it is sufficient to accept and proceed. In one of the postings, we shall dwell deeper into the subjects of Male and Female Principle. The Male Principle was symbolized by "phallic" (please see my Sanskrit-ized words link for the explanation), "lingam", "obelisk", "pillar", "scepter" or "mace". The Female Principle was symbolized by "Yoni", circle or oval enclosure, often with a passage for connecting the outside with inside. For Jews this became the Star of David, which has two triangles, one pointing upwards, which symbolizes the Male Principle, the other pointing downwards, which symbolizes the Female Principle.

The ancients worshiped "Male" and "Female" Power of Regeneration aspects that they perceived in Nature and the Divinity, which the Nature is part of it. Like fashion, language, culture, values, science, and art changes with time, religious and ideas on God change, and I will bet you that in future the idea of God will change and the symbols used to represent Him. Please read my other postings.

If you look at the symbol of Lingam and Yoni, from the top, it looks like an Electric Terminal of a Circuit Depicted in an Electrical Circuit Diagram, which conveys the same principle, of Positive and Negative Energy Forces. Here the Shiv Lingam is the symbol of Male Principle and Yoni is the Female Principle.

They ancients would treat Sun as the Male or Father Principle of Divinity. And the Earth as Female or Mother Principle of Divinity. When the Sun would go away to the Tropic of Capricorn, the ancestors being Farmers and heavily depended on the mercy of the powers of Nature and specially Sun (read they were very scientific in this understanding), they would envisage that their God, was so merciful that it would come back like a Father in Spring Equinox and Summer Solstice, and shower rains (make love to mother earth) and Earth with it's Female Principle would bring forth its produce and life here on earth would revive. They needed symbols and they were not vulgar like the today's modern mind and man is (see even today the tribal women are still not shy of revealing their breasts) and were very simple and had no guilt or complex as taught by the Judea Christian Theology on this issue. So the ancients developed the symbol denoting the Male and Female Principles. So this aspect was prevalent all over the world, specially in the Middle East, Europe, India, Greece, Crete, Egypt, Italy, and even Americas. Also people would like to have an Eternal Life and Snake was the symbol of that (because it would shed its skin every year - thus rejuvenate itself). As usual, the symbols sometimes get mixed and true meanings get lost.

So with this background, lets proceed with what other scholars have said.

Myths of Crete and Pre-Hellenic Europe: Introduction
Demeter of the Grecian Phigalia--the Black Ceres--lived in a cave, which is still regarded as sacred. This deity, who is believed to be a form of the Cretan Great Mother, was also associated with stone circles. Pausanias, writing of the town of Hermione in the Peloponnese, says that near it "there is a circle of huge unhewn stones, and inside this circle they perform the sacred rites of Demeter".

Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire
Alexander the Great said that Arabia was inferior to no country of the earth. He referred to the once famous town of Oman, which had been a harbor of the ancient commerce. It was in the day of Alexander a wilderness. His estimate of these Cushites was, "Taking them all in all, they are the richest nation of the world." Alexander lived in the declining days of Ethiopian power. Himyar was the son of Seba, the son of Cush. These were the people of Yemen and the Sabaeans of the Greeks. Lenormant called them related to the Accadians of Shinar and the Ghez of Abyssinia. Himyar became the head of the dynasty of Himyarites. These Cushite Arabians were a fine race of remarkable stature, and dark complexion. The Semitic Arabians are brown, thin, small, well formed and of opposite traits from the Cushite Arabian. The Omanee kingdom attained a latter great splendor at the beginning of the Nineteenth Century. The conquering Mohammedan tribes of the north in idol-destroying mood have effaced all the pagan temples that once covered Arabia. Several enormous stone circles like those of some parts of Europe, built as a form of primitive religion, still remain.

The Secret Doctrine by H. P. Blavatsky, vol 2, part 1, Cyclopean
"Bones are found in them (the tombs)," he says, "and Mr. Hillwell tells us that some of these are enormous, the natives (of Malabar) calling the tombs the dwellings of Rakshasas (giants)." Several stone circles, "considered the work of the Panch Pandava (five Pandus), as all such monuments are in India, so numerous in that country," when opened by the direction of Rajah Vasariddi, "were found to contain human bones of a very large size." (T. A. Wise, in "History of Paganism in Caledonia," p. 36).

In both America and Egypt the pyramids were used as places of sepulture; and it is a remarkable fact that the system of earthworks and mounds, kindred to the pyramids, is found even in England. Silsbury Hill, at Avebury, is an artificial mound one hundred and seventy feet high. It is connected with ramparts, avenues (fourteen hundred and eighty yards long), circular ditches, and stone circles, almost identical with those found in the valley of the Mississippi. In Ireland the dead were buried in vaults of stone, and the earth raised over them in pyramids flattened on the top. They were called "moats" by the people. We have found the stone vaults at the base of similar truncated pyramids in Ohio. There can be no doubt that the pyramid was a developed and perfected mound, and that the parent form of these curious structures is to be found in Silsbury Hill, and in the mounds of earth of Central America and the Mississippi Valley.
We find the emblem of the Cross in pre-Christian times venerated as a holy symbol on both sides of the Atlantic; and we find it explained as a type of the four rivers of the happy island where the civilization of the race originated

Worship of the Serpent: Chapter III. Serpent-Worship in Europe

The learned Celtic scholar, from whose translation the above poem is taken, explains it in these words:--"These ceremonies are performed at a public and solemn festival, whilst the sanctuary, or assembly of priests and votaries, invoke the dragon king. The place of consecration is on the sacred mound, within the stone circle and mount which represent the world, and near the consecrated lakes
1. At this time the huge stones of the temple were covered with a veil, on which was delineated the history of the dragon king. There seems also to have been a living serpent as a symbol of the god, who is gliding from place to place, and tasting the drink-offerings in the sacred vessels 1."

Joseph Anderson, in his book Scotland in Pagan Times, in chapter on Bronze Age Burial, mentions of Urns found in the stone ring sites in Europe, sometimes with signs of burial and sometimes with signs of cremation, just like the Hindus keep their "asthis" or "rakh" of their deceased dead ones in an urn till an opportune time comes to dispose them off in a favourable manner. Usually it is immersing them in some sacred river, but sometimes it is buried in a memorial site meant for the deceased person. Similarly, for famous saints and spiritual leaders, their bodies is not cremated but buried. Sometimes children would also not be cremeted. (My Note 1).

My Note 1. The word Pagan comes from Latin which was used to denote the rural people who stuck to their ancestral religions in the times of christian conversions and it was used to deride their religion, as it today, by the Christian Zealots. Knowing the linguistic connections, the root word is "pak" comes close, and it means pure, orthodox, cooked, solid, inflexible. If root is taken as "paGk", it means related to "mud" or "slush", which is related to rustic or rural context.

(My Note 2).
Page 9 From this I infer that when the blade was placed among the burnt bones of its owner, it had not, like them, passed through the fire, but laid been deposited ...
Page 21 The burnt bones had been collected, and placed in a shallow excavation in the sandy eminence, with a large flowerpot-shaped urn of baked clay ...
Page 23 The burials were of burnt bodies, the incinerated bones deposited in urns. The blade was found with the burial marked ...
Page 26 They are vaguely stated to have been found " in two urns, mixed with burnt bones." One of these four articles is a bronze socketed axe-head ...
Page 43 It was found at one side of a deposit of burnt bones from 3 to 4 inches in thickness, placed about 2 feet under the surface, and covering an area of about ...
Page 45 ... mass of ashes and burnt bones of very small size, which were determined from the presence of a milk molar to be those of an infant. ...
Page 49 In the bottom was a layer of burnt bones 2 inches thick, among which was ...
Page 57 There was no urn observed, but the deposit was not carefully examined, and the only things that seem to have attracted attention were the burnt bones which ...
Page 63 It lay close to two of the burnt burials that were first discovered, and on the flat stone cover of the cist which contained the skeleton were two ...
Page 67 In the cist was a deposit of burnt bones, and at one corner on a piece of flat stone lay four discs of thin gold, and a necklace of beads of amber. ...
Page 69 We find this characteristic feature associated alike with burnt and with unburnt interments ; with burials in cairns, and with burials in natural mounds, ...
Page 70 two are found associated with burnt burials, and two with burials unburnt :— First Group.—Cinerary urns, containing or covering the ...
Page 90 We have frequently found the burnt interments and the interments unburnt in close juxtaposition in the same group of burials, and in point of fact the two ...
Page 91 filled with burnt bones. One was inverted over the bones, the position of the other was not ascertained. Both were simply set in the ...
Page 92 It is probable that this case at Tealing was a similar one, and that the two overlying burnt bodies were laid there at the same time as the unburnt body. ...
Page 104 The interments are burnt, and associated with cinerary urns of the same typical form and ornamentation, and with the same characteristic thin flat blade of ...
Page 116 128), which was found filled with burnt bones, was subsequently sent to the National Museum. It is of the cinerary form, and more than usually ornate in ...
Page 117 From the fact that they contain interments, burnt and unburnt, it is obvious that they were in when both these customs were practised, while the occurrence ...
Page 132 One of the cairns, which contained a central cist, 4 feet long, in which was a burnt interment and some beads of jet, had a circle of stones set at ...
Page 171 An arrow-head of flint was found with a burnt interment in a barrow at Wilsford, also in South Wilts, with which there was a bronze dagger and a whetstone. ...
Page 240 Beads of Lignite compacted clay and ashes, fully 6 inches in thickness, intermixed with charcoal, and burnt bones, human and animal. ...
Page 252 This layer of burnt bones and ashes, which formed the floor of the chamber, was from 9 inches to a foot in thickness. Imbedded in it were a considerable ...
Page 253 On the floors Mr. Rhind found bones, unburnt, and in the floors burnt bones and pottery, but he met with no flint chips or implements of any kind ; and his ...
Page 260 The whole floor of the principal chamber and the inner part of the entrance passage consisted of an accumulation of ashes and broken and burnt bones, ...
Page 263 No relics of any kind were discovered in the examination of these chambers, but the floors still afford indications of the presence of charcoal and burnt ...
Page 314 It is supposed to have been washed out of a cairn of stones in which an un- burnt burial was subsequently found ...

Often, the burial sites were associated with Stone Rings, where worship and religious activities were associated. It is not common to have the burial places of saints and spiritual leaders become places of worship in all parts of the world, including India, and among Hindus, specially the Swamis who have taken samadhi. Stone Rings are often found associated with Standing Stones, and if often the symbol of union of Male and Female Principle. This is my conjecture that the ancients believed in life after death, and in re-incarnation, and would epitomize the stone ring as "mother's womb", and for protection after life, a burial in a chamber would often be present. For those taking the reincarnation literally, or choosing to preserve the remains of their divine saints, would choose burial. Those believing in the subtle sense of reincarnation and understand the deeper meaning of "from ashes to ashes", would choose cremation. (My Note 2).

My Note 2.
Page 97 ... externally by overground erections or stone-settings, such as are known in this country by the names of Stone Circles, or groups of Standing Stones. ...
Page 101 They differ from those previously described in one respect only,—they are marked above ground by the presence of a stone-setting of peculiar character, ...
Page 103 CIRCLES, AND SETTINGS OF STANDING STONES. equally characteristic. Close by the stone which stood to the west of the north point in the circumference of the ...more »
Page 105 122). 11 s base was formed of flat slabs, the inner edges of which .¡1 and 122.—Ground-plan and Section of Stone Circle at Crichie, ...
Page 107 CIRCLES, AND SETTINGS OF STANDING STONES. its outlines, but deeply hollowed on the two sides at the orifices of the perforation for the handle, ...
Page 108 ... within such circles as have one of the spaces between two of the standing stones filled by a great recumbent stone or slab, usually placed on its edge, ...
Page 109 ... diameter, which had consisted apparently of twelve stones— the pillar-stones from 5 ...
Page 111 From these examples it is clear that whatever may be the variation in the constructive character of the stone-setting, or in the general nature of the ...
Page 114 The larger of the two interior circles is remarkable, as presenting the same feature which has been already remarked as characteristic of the external ...
Page 115 ... 5 feet high and 3 feet thick. A cavity shows where the corresponding upright had stood at no distant date. ...
Page 117 There may be stone circles which have yielded no conclusive evidence of inter- .ent, but the want of evidence in a few cases (to whatever ...
Page 118 In other words, we have so many stone circles which, upon proper investigation, have proved themselves burying-places, that it is impossible for us to ...
Page 119 The highest stone standing is 14 feet, the lowest about 6 feet. Of the twenty-three stones which are either erect ...
Page 121 A line of five stones extends from the circumference to a distance of 96 feet to the south ; a similar ...
Page 123 ... come to deal with the chambered cairn as the typical form of the Stone Age burial structure, we shall find them ...
Page 124 For instance, although stone circles occur in considerable numbers in Scandinavia,1 and although in that area they are also found enclosing burials after ...
Page 125 At present we are unable to define with any degree of accuracy the limits of the area over which stone circles are found, and equally unable to say within ...
Page 133 ... the stones of these groups of parallel rows, and the stones of stone circles, are set with their long faces in the line of the direction of the rows, ...
Page 134 We have previously seen that the same thing was fully demonstrated with regard to the circles. It appears therefore that whatever may be the form assumed by ...
Page 135 By the recognition of this, as the legitimate result of their scientific investigation, the stone circles of Scotland are certainly divested of much of the ...
Page 136 In point of fact, there is nothing which is of the nature of evidence by which the stone circles of Scotland can be 1 It is a most suggestive and ...
Page 139 ... stone circles. There is no example of a dwelling or a stronghold which can be assigned with certainty to the Bronze Age in Scotland ; and the remaining ...
Page 229 I now proceed, in the three Lectures which follow, to deal similarly with the remains and relics of the Age of Stone,— in other ...
Page 301 In form and character they closely resemble the cinerary urns found in the circles and cemeteries of the Bronze Age, as described in the previous Lectures. ...
Page 302 ... of these cairns have now been published in a very interesting paper on the Stone Circles of Strathnairn by Mr. J. Fraser, CE, Inverness, in Proc. Soc. ...

The following pictures would make it clear that the stone circles are also worshipping the union of male and female principle.

We know a lot of these circles were aligned to the four cardinal directions, and/or, to the direction of solar and/or lunar rising and setting in winter and summer equinox and winder and summer solistice. So one can conclude that the ancients had the need to estimate the arrival of these events and a need to mark the days, months, and years. Lets see if the stone circle reveal this and if the Stonehenge is the panecca of this principle, which has not been discussed so far by anyone. (To be continued in next posting of the blog)

Krishna, Buddha & Christ

Again, continuing on the background of importance of the cycle of Neros to the ancients, as mentioned in Anacalypsis.

The following observations of the very celebrated astronomer Cassini, made more than a hundred years ago, and extracted from La Loubere's History of Siam, will enable me to elicit several conclusions respecting the famous Neros, of the greatest importance. As an astronomer, M. Cassini is in the first rank. No one will deny that his calculations upon acknowledged or admitted facts are entitled to the highest respect. I think they will enable me to point out the origin of many of the difficulties respecting Buddha and Cristna, and to explain them. They will also enable me to show the mode which was adopted by the early popes and other priests, in fixing the times of several of the most important Christian epochas; as well as to exhibit the mode in which the Gods Buddha and Cristna have been regenerated. These circumstances have either been unobserved, or they have been concealed from Europeans. After a long discussion on the formation of the Siamese astronomical and civil epochas, in which, with profound learning, Cassini explains the process by which they have been formed, he says— " The first lunisolar period, composed of whole ages, is that of 600 years, which is also composed of 31 periods of 19, and one of 11 years. Though the chronologists speak not of this period, yet it is one of the ancientest that have been invented. " Josephus,1 speaking of the patriarchs that lived before the deluge,

1 Antiq. Jud. Lib. i. Cap. iii.

says, that ' God prolonged their life, as well by reason of their virtue, as to afford them the means to perfect the sciences of geometry and astronomy, which they had invented: which they could not possibly do, if they had lived less than 600 years, because that it is not till after the revolution of six ages, that the great year is accomplished.' This great year, which is accomplished after six ages, whereof not any other author makes mention, can only be a period of lunisolar years, like to that which the Jews always used, and to that which the Indians do still make use of. Wherefore we have thought necessary to examine what this great year must be, according to the Indian rules. By the rules of the first section it is found, then, that in 600 years there are 7200 solar months; 7421 lunar months, and 12/228. Here this little fraction must be neglected; because that the luni-solar years do end with the lunar months, being composed of entire lunar months. It is found by the rules of Section II., that 7421 lunar months do comprehend 219,146 days, 11 hours, 57 minutes, 52 seconds: if, therefore, we compose this period of whole days, it must consist of 219,146 days. 600 Gregorian years are alternatively of 219,145 days, and 219,146 days: they agree then to half a day with a solilunar period of 600 years, calculated according to the Indian rules. The second lunisolar period composed of ages, is that of 2300 years, which being joined to one of 600, makes a more exact period of 2900 years: and two periods of 2300 years, joined to a period of 600 years, do make a lunisolar period of 5200 years, which is the interval of the time which is reckoned, according to Eusebius's chronology, from the creation of the world to the vulgar Epocha of the years of Jesus Christ. These lunisolar periods, and the two epochas of the Indians, which we have examined, do point unto us, as with the finger, the admirable epocha of the years of Jesus Christ, which is removed from the first of these two Indian epochas, a period of 600 years, wanting a period of 19 years, and which precedes the second by a period of 600 years, and two of 19 years. Thus the year of Jesus Christ (which is that of his incarnation and birth, according to the tradition of the church, and as Father Grandamy justifies it in his Christian chronology, and Father Ricciolus in his reformed astronomy) is also an astronomical epocha, in which, according to the modern tables, the middle conjunction of the moon with the sun

happened the 24th March, according to the Julian form re-established a little after by Augustus, at one o'clock and a half in the morning, at the meridian of Jerusalem, the very day of the middle Equinox, a Wednesday, which is the day of the creation of these two planets. The day following, March 25th, which, according to the ancient tradition of the church, reported by St. Augustine,1 was the day of our Lord's incarnation, was likewise the day of the first phasis of the moon; and, consequently, it was the first day of the month, according to the usage of the Hebrews, and the first day of the sacred year, which, by the divine institution, must begin with the first month of the spring, and the first day of a great year, the natural epocha of which is the concourse of the middle equinox, and of the middle conjunction of the Moon with the Sun. This concourse terminates, therefore, the lunisolar periods of the preceding ages, and was an epocha from whence began a new order of ages, according to the oracle of the Sibyl, related by Virgil in these words (Eclog. iv.): "Magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo; Jam nova progenies Coelo dimittitur alto. " This oracle seems to answer the prophecy of Isaiah, Parvulus natus "at nobls"; (ch. ix. 6 and 7;) where this new-born is called God and "father of future ages; Deus fortis, pater futuri sceculi," The interpreters do remark in this prophecy, as a thing mysterious, the extraordinary situation of a Mem final (which is the numerical character of 600) in this word "the hebrew word lmrbe", ad multiplicandum, where this Mem final is in the second place, there being no other example in the whole text of the Holy Scripture whereever a final letter is placed only at the end of the words. This numerical character of 600 in this situation might allude to the periods of 600 years of the Patriarchs, which were to terminate at the accomplishment of the prophecy, which is the epocha, from whence we do at present compute the years of Jesus Christ.

* On this prophecy Mr. Faber says, " In this extraordinary poem, he (Virgil) celebrates the expected birth of a wonderful child, who was " destined to put an end to the age of iron, and to introduce a new age of gold (precisely the idea of Isaiah). The last period sung by the Sibylline prophetess, is now arrived."

1 De Trin. Lib. iv. Chap.

Religion in Astronomy

I have adapted this from Anacalypsis and Celtic Druids, by Geoffry Higgins.

The profound doctrines of abstractions or emanations; of the absorption of the individual soul into the divine ether or essence; of the renewal of worlds and reincarnation, were doubtless elaborated after the separation, in the human mind, of Spirit from matter, but before mankind had lost the power to reason abstractly.

Although Pythagoras understood and believed these doctrines, he did not, as is well known, receive them from his degenerate countrymen, but, on the contrary, imbibed them from private sources among the orientals, where fragments of their remarkable learning were still extant. He said that religion consists in knowing the truth and doing good, and his ideas show the grandeur and beauty of the earlier conception of a Deity. He declared that there is only one God who is not, "as some are apt to imagine, seated above the world, beyond the orb of the universe," but that this great power is diffused throughout Nature. It is "the reason, the life, and the motion of all things."

Plato believed that human beings are possessed of two souls, the one mortal, which perishes with the body, the other immortal, which continues to exist either in a state of happiness or misery; that the righteous soul, freed from the limitations of matter, returns at death to the source whence it came, and that the wicked, after having been detained for a while in a place prepared for their reception, are sent back to earth to reanimate other bodies.
(My Note)

My Note: This echos of things said in Bhagwat Gita and other Hindu Scriptures, much before Plato.

Aristotle held the opinion that the souls of human beings are sparks from the divine flame (My Note 1), while Zeno, the founder of the Stoic philosophy, taught that spirit acting upon matter produced the elements and the earth (My Note 2). There is plenty of evidence going to show that the early Fathers in the Christian church believed in the doctrines of reincarnation and the renewal of worlds (My Note 3). Neither is there any doubt but that this philosophy came from the East, where it originated. It is thought that the ancient philosophers who elaborated these doctrines were unable to account for the existence of evil without a belief in the immortality of the soul. Spirit was eternal, as was also matter.

A soul, upon leaving the body, in course of time found its way back to earth, surrounded by conditions suited to its stage of growth. Here it must reap all the consequences of its former life. It must also during its stay on earth make the conditions for its next appearance upon an earthly plane. So soon as through a succession of births and deaths it had perfected itself, it entered into a state of Nirvana. It was absorbed into the great Universal Soul. Nothing is ever lost. (My Note 4)

My Notes: (1) Bhagwat Gita, Vedanta and other Hindu Scriptures mention this. (2) Sankhya Philosphy, (3) Bhagwat Gita talks about it, (4). Bhgwat Gita and Vedanta talk about it. Some noted western professor said that Hindoos were the first people to understand the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy, which were seperately stated for matter and energy until Albert Einstein combined them into a famous E=MC^2.

"Many a house of life Hath held me--seeking ever Him who wrought These prisons of the senses, sorrow fraught; Sore was my ceaseless strife! But now, Thou builder of this tabernacle--Thou! I know Thee. Never shalt Thou build again These walls of pain, Nor raise the roof-tree of deceits, nor lay Fresh rafters on the clay; Broken Thy house is, and the ridge-pole split! Delusion fashioned it! Safe pass I thence--deliverance to obtain." (Note 60)

Note 60: Edwin Arnold, The light of Asia.

Regarding the opinions of the ancients on the subject of the eternity of matter, Higgins, in his learned work on Celtic Druids, says:

"The eternity of matter is a well known tenet of the Pythagoreans, and whether right or wrong there can be no doubt that it was the doctrine of the oriental school, whence Pythagoras drew his learning. It was a principle taken or mistaken from, or found amongst, the debris of that mighty mass of learning and science of a former period, of which, on looking back as far as human ken can reach, the most learned men have thought that they could see a faint glimmering. Indeed, I think I may say something more than a faint glimmering. For all the really valuable moral and philosophical doctrines we possess, Dutens has shown to have existed there."

From what is known relative to the speculations of an ancient race, the fact is observed that creation was but a re-formation of matter. Wisdom, or Minerva, formed the earth and the planets; she did not create the heavens and the earth, as did the later Jewish God.

Of the seven (My Note 1) principles of the universe, matter was the first, and of the seven principles of man, the physical body was the earliest. Through evolutionary processes, or through cyclic periods involving millions of years, mind was developed, and in course of time spirit was finally manifested.

My Note 1: Hindus circumambulating 7 times in temples and in their wedding ceremony around the sacred fire, the 7 worlds of consciousness, the 7 Chakaras in Kundalini Yoga, Muslim and Pre-Muslim Idolters circumambulating Kaba Black Stone 7 times, and the 7 worlds of creation or the 7 divine emanations, watched by arch-angels in Zorastrian, Jew, Christian (Gnositicism) and Islam religion, perhaps has some common basis, perhaps on the knowledge of 5 planets and Sun and Moon by the ancients.

Mai, the Mother of Gotama Buddha (My Note 1), was simply matter, or illusion, from which its higher manifestation, mind or spirit, was emerging. She was also the mother of Mercury. A clearer knowledge of the philosophical doctrines which were elaborated at a time when Nature-worship was beginning to decay, reveals the fact that the god-idea comprehended a profound knowledge of Nature and her laws; that while this people did not pretend to account for the existence of matter, they recognized a force operating through it whose laws were unchanged and unchanging.

My Note 1: This is an overloaded word for Maya, who was also the mother of Gautam Buddha, besides the word Maya associated with Brhman and Maya, where Brahman is the first principle, or for some as a male or father principle, the Shiva Prinicple, and Maya is the illusion principle or the female or mother principle, the Shakti Principle.

With these facts relative to the intelligence of an older race before us, the question naturally arises: What was the degree of civilization attained at a time when the Deity worshipped was an abstract principle involving the actual creative processes throughout Nature? and, notwithstanding our prejudices, we are constrained to acknowledge that these earlier conceptions are scarcely compatible with the barbarism which we have been taught (My Note 1) to regard as the condition of all the peoples which existed prior to the first Greek Olympiad. On the contrary, the origin of the philosophical opinions entertained by the most ancient oriental philosophers, and which must have arisen out of a profound knowledge or appreciation of Nature and her operations, point to a race far superior to any of those peoples which appear in early historic times. Regarding these opinions, Godfrey Higgins remarks:

"From their philosophical truth and universal reception I am strongly inclined to refer them to the authors of the Neros, or to that enlightened race, supposed by Bailly to have formerly existed, and to have been saved from a great catastrophe on the Himalaya Mountains. This is confirmed by an observation which the reader will make in the sequel, that these doctrines have been, like all the other doctrines of antiquity, gradually corrupted--incarnated, if I may be permitted to compose a word for the occasion."

My Note 1: Hints to the false propoganda promoted by early Christian and Islamic zealots who forced the conversions.

Of this cycle, Bailly says: "No person could have invented the Neros who had not arrived at much greater perfection in astronomy than we know was the state of the most ancient Assyrians, Egyptians, and Greeks."

Toward the close of the eighteenth century the celebrated astronomer, Bailly, published a work entitled The History of Ancient Astronomy, in which he endeavored to prove that a nation possessed of profound wisdom and great genius, and of an antiquity far superior to the Hindoos or Egyptians, "inhabited the country to the north of India, or about fifty degrees north latitude." (My Note 1) This writer has shown that "the most celebrated astronomical observations and inventions, from their peculiar character, could have taken place only in these latitudes, and that arts and improvements gradually travelled thence to the equator."

My Note 1: There are other reasons besides Astronomical observations alluded that are only possible from the northen region of India (which spanned from Uzbekistan and Tachuria to Burma, Java, Sumatra, and Indonesia - atleast in the religious and cultural influence and perhaps more). Nowhere the are so many rivers present, and nowhere there are such high mountains and valleys to survive the great flood or deluge mentioned in all nations. This regions is most probably the region of Tibet, Tachuria, Pamir Mountains, and Himalays. This is backed up by the National Geographic Study which shows man existed in this region and passed into Europe in 40, 000 BC.

A colony of Brahmins settled near the Imans, and in Northern Thibet, where in ancient times they established celebrated colleges, particularly at Nagraent and Cashmere. In these institutions the treasures of Sanskrit literature were supposed to be deposited. The Rev. Mr. Maurice was informed that an immemorial tradition prevailed at Benares that all the learning of India came from a country situated in forty degrees of northern latitude. Other writers are of the opinion that civilization proceeded from Arabia; that the old Cushite race carried commerce, letters, and laws to all the nations of the East. Which of these theories is true, if either, may not with certainty be proved at present; yet that in the far distant past a race of people existed whose achievements exceeded those of any of the historic nations may not be doubted.

That the length of the year was calculated with greater exactness by an ancient and forgotten people than it was by early historic nations is proved by the cycle of the Neros. This cycle, which was formed of 7.421 lunar revolutions of 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, and 3 seconds, or 219,146 days and a half, was equal to 600 solar years of 365 days, 5 hours, 51 minutes, and 36 seconds, which time varies less than three minutes from the present observations of the year's length. The length of the year as calculated by the Egyptians and other early historic nations was 360 days, which fact would seem to indicate that a science of astronomy had been developed in an earlier age which by the most ancient peoples of whom we have any historic records has been lost or forgotten. It has been said that if this cycle of the Neros "were correct to the second, if on the first of January at noon a new moon took place, it would take place again in exactly 600 years at the same moment of the day, and under all the same circumstances." Note 61

61 Godfrey Higgins, Celtic Druids, ch. ii., sec. 14.

The Varaha Calpa has the famous cycle of 4,320,000,000 years for its duration. This system makes the Cali Yug begin 3098 years B.C. A dodecan consisted of 5 days, and 72 dodecans formed a natural year of 360 days. According to the earlier calculations, 360 solar diurnal revolutions constituted a natural year. The doctrine of the ancients concerning these cycles is thus set forth by Godfrey Higgins:

"The sun, or rather that higher principle of which the sun was the emblem (My Note 1) or the shekinah, was considered to be incarnated every six hundred years. Whilst the sun was in Taurus, the different incarnations, under whatever names they might go, were all considered but as incarnations of Buddha or Taurus. When he got into Aries, they were in like manner considered but as incarnations of Cristna or Aries, and even Buddha and Cristna were originally considered the same, and had a thousand names in common, constantly repeated in their litanies--a striking proof of identity of origin. Of these Zodiacal divisions the Hindoos formed another period, which consisted of ten ages or Calpas or Yugs, which they considered the duration of the world, at the end of which a general renovation of all things would take place. They also reckoned ten Neroses to form a period, each of them keeping a certain relative location to the other, and together to form a cycle. To effect this they doubled the precessional period for one sign-- viz: 2160 years (My Note 2) --thus making 4320, which was a tenth of 43,200, a year of the sun, analogous to the 360 natural days, and produced in the same manner, by multiplying the day of 600 by the dodecans 72 = 43,200. They then formed another great year of 432,000 by again multiplying it by 10, which they called a Cali Yug, which was measurable both by the number 2160, the years the equinox preceded in a sign, and by the number 600. They then had the following scheme:

A Cali Yug, or 600 (or a Neros) 432,000
A Dwapar, or Duo-par Age. . . . .864,000
A Treta, or tree-par Age. . . . . 1,296,000
A Satya, or Satis Age . . . . . . . . 1,728,000
Total ---------------------------- 4,320,000
(My Note 3)

The total 4,320,000 altogether 10 Ages, making a Maha Yug or Great Age. These were all equimultiples of the Cycle of the Neros 600, and of 2160, the twelfth part of the equinoctial precessional Cycle, and in all formed ten ages of 432,000 years each." Note 62

Note 62 Anacalypsis, vol. i., p. 232.

My Note 1: The re-incarnation priniciple of the Holiest Divine Emnations for restoring the Dharma or the Righteous Prinicple of God.

My Note 2: 4320,000 was the number known to Hindus, Babylonians, Egyptians, Nordics and Celts as it is mentioned in their mythology. But the science behind it was lost in the "dark" ages of the Arab, Hellenistic and Western worlds, and the their astrology not accounting for the Precision of the Earth. In fact I have read that this also encoded into the Egyptian Pyramids.

My Note 3: Western Astrology, which was based on Arab and Greece Astrology, was based on only 2 motions of the earth, the spin of 24 hours around its axis and the rotation around the sun in the solar orbital elliptic in 360/364/365 days. Only the Indian and Chinese Astrology was based on the 3rd axis of earth spin, which is the wobble, and has a periodicity of 2160 years in one Zodiac sign, coming to 2160 x 12 = 25920 years. This means that one had to definitely observe the central star, which is the North Pole of the Celestial Sphere, making a complete turn in 25920 years! This being impractical, they would observe that the Solar Solstice would rotate a Zodiac, 360/12 = 30 degrees, by 2160 years, or 1 degree every 72 years! The accuracy of the observation depends on the instruments of the ancients, which I doubt could go beyond 30 Degrees, as for 15 degrees accuracy, they had to divide the celestial circle into 24 parts, and their would have been then 24 Zodiacs! So this record keeping went on for at least 2160 years, which is backed up when one studies Stonehenge, of which I will come later and is part of this series. Also note, 2160 = 270 x x 8 = 3/4 x 360 x 8 = 6 x 360 = 72 x 30 = 144 x 15; 4320 = 72 x 2 x 15 x 2 = 144 x 30; 25920 = 144 x 180 = 288 x 90 = 72 x 360.

The two great religious festivals of the ancients occurred the one in the spring, at Easter, when all Nature was renewed, the other in the autumn, after the earth had yielded her bounties and the fruits were garnered in. It was at these gatherings that the Great Mother Earth received the devout adoration of all her children. (My Note 1)

My Note 1: This was the basis for worshiping the Sun as a Father or Male Prinicple as well, and which rose the the Phallic or Lingam Worship, seen in all parts of the word as well as the worshipping of the Earth as a Mother or Female Principle as well, which rose to the Circle or Yoni Worship all over the world, which I shall talk about later.

It is supposed that the Neros, or cycle of 600, is closely connected with this worship, and that it was invented to regulate the season for these festivals. In process of time it was discovered that this cycle no longer answered, that the festival which had originally fallen on the first of May now occurred on the first of April. This, we are told, "led ultimately to the discovery that the equinox preceded about 2160 years in each sign or 25,920 years in the 12 signs, and this induced them to try if they could not form a cycle of the two. On examination, they found that the 600 would not commensurate the 2160 years in a sign, or any number of sums of 2160 less than ten, but that it would with ten, or that in ten times 2160, or in 21,600 years, the two cycles would agree; yet this artificial cycle would not be enough to include the cycle of 25,920. They, therefore, took two of the periods of 21,600, or 43,200; and, multiplying both by ten--viz: 600 X 10 = 6000, and 43,200 X 10 = 432,000--they formed a period with which the 600-year period and the 6000-year period would terminate and form a cycle. Every 432,000 years the three periods would commence anew; thus the three formed a year or cycle, 72 times 6000 making 432,000, and 720 times 600 making 432,000." Note 63

63 Higgins, Anacalypsis, p. 235.

To form a great year, which would include all the cyclical motions of the sun and moon, and perhaps of the planets, they multiplied 432,000 by ten; thus they had ten periods answering to ten signs. Concerning these cycles Godfrey Higgins observes:

"Persons of narrow minds will be astonished at such monstrous cycles; but it is very certain that no period could properly be called the great year unless it embraced in its cycle every periodical movement or apparent aberration. But their vulgar wonder will perhaps cease when they are told that La Place has proved that, if the periodical aberrations of the moon be correctly calculated, the great year must be extended to a greater length even than 4,320,000 years of the Maha Yug of the Hindoos, and certainly no period can be called a year of our planetary system which does not take in all the periodical motions of the planetary bodies."

It is thought that as soon as these ancient astronomers perceived that the equinoxes preceded, they would at once attempt to determine the rate of precession in a given time; the precession, however, in one year was so small that they were obliged to extend their observations over immense periods. Jones informs us that the Hindoos first supposed that the precession took place at the rate of 60 years in a degree, or 1800 in a Zodiacal sign, and of 21,600 in a revolution of the entire circle. They afterwards came to think that the precession was at the rate of 60 years and a fraction of a year, and thus that the precession for a sign was in 1824 years, and for the circle in 21,888 years. Subsequently they discovered, or thought they had discovered, the Soli-Lunar period of 608 years, hence they attempted to make the two go together. Both, however, proved to be erroneous.

In referring to the fact that among the ancient Romans existed the story of the twelve vultures and the twelve ages of 120 years each, Higgins remarks:

"This arose from the following cause: They came from the East before the supposition that the precession took place a degree in about 60 years, and 1824 years in a sign had been discovered to be erroneous; and as they supposed the Neros made a correct cycle in 608 years, and believed the precessional cycle to be completed in 21,888, they of course made their ages into twelve. As both numbers were erroneous, they would not long answer their intended purpose, and their meaning was soon lost, though the sacred periods of twelve ages and of 608 remained."

According to Hipparchus and Ptolemy, the equinoxes preceded at the rate of a degree in 100 years, or 36,000 hundred years in 360 degrees. This constituted a great year, at the end of which the regeneration of all things takes place. This is thought to be a remnant of the most ancient Hindoo speculations, and not the result of observation among the Greeks. (My Note 1) Some time after the arrival of the sun in Aries, "at the vernal equinox, the Indians probably discovered their mistake, in giving about 60 years to a degree; that they ought to give 50" to a year, about 72 years to a degree, and about 2160 years to a sign; and that the Luni-Solar cycle, called the Neros, did not require 608 years, but 600 years only, to complete its period. Hence arose the more perfect Neros."

My Note 1: This shows the vector of the astronomical knowledge movement that I have observed in others areas like cultural, religious, language, philosphy as well, and accounts for the richness of Sanskrit as a language vs Greece in terms of grammer, though close, as well Greece philosphers being told to have visited the Orient schools in the East, as well as Greece admission that their God Dyniosus came from India. More on this sometime later.

It is thought by various writers that the knowledge of the ancient Hindoos regarding the movements of the sun and moon in their cycles of nineteen and six hundred years--the Metonic cycle, and the Neros--proves that long before the birth of Hipparchus the length of the year was known with a degree of exactitude which that astronomer had not the means of determining. It is positively asserted by astronomers that at least twelve hundred years were required, "during which time the observations must have been taken with the greatest care and regularly recorded," to arrive at the knowledge necessary for the invention of the Neros, and that such observations would have been impossible without the aid of the telescope.

On the subject of the great learning of an ancient race, Sir W. Drummond says:

"The fact, however, is certain, that at some remote period there were mathematicians and astronomers who knew that the sun is in the centre of the planetary system, and that the earth, itself a planet, revolves round the central fire;--who calculated, or like ourselves attempted to calculate, the return of comets, and who knew that these bodies move in elliptic orbits, immensely elongated, having the sun in one of their foci;--who indicated the number of the solar years contained in the great cycle, by multiplying a period (variously called in the Zend, the Sanscrit, and the Chinese ven, van, and phen) of 180 years by another period of 144 years;--who reckoned the sun's distance from the earth at 800,000,000 of Olympic stadia; and who must, therefore, have taken the parallax of that luminary by a method, not only much more perfect than that said to be invented by Hipparchus, but little inferior in exactness to that now in use among the moderns;--who could scarcely have made a mere guess when they fixed the moon's distance from its primary planet at fifty-nine semi-diameters of the earth; (My Note 1) --who had measured the circumference of our globe with so much exactness that their calculation only differed by a few feet from that made by our modern geometricians; --who held that the moon and the other planets were worlds like our own, and that the moon was diversified by mountains and valleys and seas;--who asserted that there was yet a planet which revolved round the sun, beyond the orbit of Saturn;--who reckoned the planets to be sixteen in number; --and who reckoned the length of the tropical year within three minutes of the true time; nor, indeed, were they wrong at all, if a tradition mentioned by Plutarch be correct." Note 64

My Note 1: It seems the diameter of Earth and Moon, and their circumfrence is encoded into Pyramids and Stonehenge.

Note 64 Drummond, On the Zodiacs, p. 36.

Bailly, Sir W. Jones, Higgins, and Ledwich, as well as many modern writers, agree in the conclusion that the Indians, the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and the Chinese were simply the depositaries, not the inventors, of science. The spirit of inquiry which in later times is directing attention to the almost buried past is revealing the fact that not merely the germs whence our present civilization has been developed descended to us from the dim ages of antiquity, but that a great number of the actual benefits which go to make up our present state of material progress have come to us from prehistoric times. The art of writing, of navigation (including the use of the compass), the working of metals, astronomy, the telescope, gunpowder, mathematics, democracy, building, weaving, dyeing, and many of the appliances of civilized life, have been appropriated by later ages with no acknowledgment of the source whence they were derived. When Pythagoras (My Note 1) exhibited to the Greeks some beautiful specimens of ancient architecture which he had brought from Egypt and Babylon, they simply claimed them as their own, giving no credit to the people who originated them; and subsequent ages, copying their example, have refused to acknowledge that anything of value had been achieved prior to the first Greek Olympiad.

My Note 1: Pythogorous Theorem is mentioned in Vedas Salbha Angas and he was pracitising religious and spirtitual beliefs akin to of Hindoos'.

When Philip of Macedon opened the gold mines of Thrace, a country in which it will be remembered the worship of the Great Mother Cybele was indigenous, he found that they had been previously worked "at great expense and with great ingenuity by a people well versed in mechanics, of whom no monuments whatever are extant."

The decorations on the breasts of some of the oldest mummies show that the early Egyptians understood the art of making glass. It is now known that the lens as a magnifying instrument was in use among them. Attention has been drawn to the fact that the astronomical observations of the ancients would have been impossible without the aid of the telescope. Diodorus Siculus says there was an island west of the Celtae in which the Druids brought the sun and moon near them. An instrument has recently been found in the sands of the Nile, the construction of which shows plainly that 6000 years ago the Egyptians were acquainted with our modern ideas of the science of astronomy.

William Huntington, who has travelled widely in India, Borneo, the Malay Peninsula, and Egypt, says:

"I think, on the whole, the most interesting experience I ever had was in an ancient city on the Nile in Egypt. . . . When I was there a year ago, and men were digging among the ruined temples, some curious things were brought to light, and these I regard as the strangest things seen in all my wanderings. In an old tomb was found a curious iron and glass object, which on investigation proved to be a photographic camera. It was not such a camera as is used now, or has been since our photography was invented, but something analogous to it, showing that the art which we thought we had discovered was really known 6000 years ago."

The same writer states that a plow constructed on the modern plan was also found. "It was not of steel but of iron, and it had the same shape, the same form of point and bend of mold board as we have now."

It is reported that the dark continent possesses means of communication entirely unknown to Europe. Upon this subject a correspondent to the New York Tribune writes:

"When Khartoum fell in 1885 I was in Egypt, and I well remember that the Arabs settled in the neighborhood of the pyramids knew all about it, as well as about Gen. Gordon's death, days and days before the news reached Cairo by telegraph from the Soudanese frontier. Yet Khartoum is thousands of miles distant from Cairo and the telegraph wires from the frontier were monopolized by the government."

The same correspondent observes that these Arabs told him, months previously, of the defeat of the Egyptian army under Baker Pasha at Tokar--that they not only gave him the news, but several particulars concerning the matter, two full days before intelligence was received from the Red Sea coast. In answer to the suggestion that such information might have been conveyed by means of signal fires, this writer says that such fires would have attracted the attention of the English and native scouts, and that the whole country is unpropitious to such methods; besides, no system of signal fires, no matter how elaborate, could have conveyed the news so quickly and in such detail. The whole matter is summed up as follows:

"The Arabs, therefore, have, manifestly, some other means of rapid communication at their command. One is inclined to the presumption that they, like the learned Pundits of Northern India, have a knowledge of the forces of Nature that are yet hidden from our most eminent scientists."

Can it be that the Arabs are acquainted with the very recently discovered scientific principle, that it is possible to transmit telegraphic communications without wires, and simply by means of magnetic currents in earth and water?

Nor is this remarkable skill confined to the "barbarians of the Old World." A correspondent from the far West to the New York Press wrote that
long before the news of the Custer massacre reached Fort Abraham Lincoln the Sioux had communicated it to their brethren. The scouts in Crook's column to the south knew of it almost immediately, as did those with Gibbon farther northwest. The same writer says that several years ago a naval lieutenant ran short of provisions. He pushed on to a settlement as rapidly as possible and upon arriving there found that the inhabitants had provided for his coming and had a bounteous store awaiting him. The people in the village were of a different tribe from those whose domain he had passed, and so far as could be learned were not in communication with them.

The earliest accounts which we have of Egypt and Chaldea reveal the fact that at a very remote period they were old and powerful civilizations, that they had a settled government, a pure and philosophical religion, and a profound knowledge of science and art; yet, notwithstanding the great antiquity of these civilizations, that of the people which created them must have been infinitely more remote.

The earliest historic nations recognized the greatness of these ancient people and the extent of their dominion. In the oldest geographical writings of the Sanskrit people, the ancient Ethiopia, or land of Cush of Greek and Hebrew antiquity, is clearly described. Stephanus of Byzantium, who is said to represent the opinions of the most ancient Greeks, says: "Ethiopia was the first established country on the earth, and the Ethiopians were the first who introduced the worship of the Gods and who established laws." Note 65

Note 65 Quoted by John D. Baldwin, Prehistoric Nations, p. 62.

Heeren in his researches says: "From the remotest times to the present, the Ethiopians have been one of the most celebrated, and yet the most mysterious of nations. In the earliest traditions of nearly all the more civilized nations of antiquity, the name of this distant people is found. The annals of the Egyptian priests are full of them, and the nations of inner Asia, on the Euphrates and Tigris, have interwoven the fictions of the Ethiopians with their traditions of the wars and conquests of their heroes; and, at a period equally remote, they glimmer in Greek mythology. When the Greeks scarcely knew Italy and Sicily by name, the Ethiopians were celebrated in the verses of their poets, and when the faint gleam of tradition and fable gives way to the clear light of history, the lustre of the Ethiopians is not diminished."